The current widely used public chain technology, whether BSC or TRX, is an upgrade of ETH architecture, the main architecture is basically the same.Under this architecture, the block time of 3 seconds is basically the limit and the data throughput is also extremely limited.
SOL can shorten the block time to 0.4 seconds and support up to 710,000 tradings per second with low fees. The reason is that it has jumped out of the consensus framework of ETH and switched to using POH consensus (proof of history), thus reshaping the time model and improving efficiency.
Take BTC as an example, BTC is a blockchain composed of each block in the order of its timestamp. This time is consistent with the concept of time as we generally think of it, and here we will tentatively call it absolute time. In contrast, with SOL's consensus mechanism, each node has an independent timeline. The data is sorted only when an interaction occurs between the nodes. Before the interaction, each node records the relative time.
For example, if A transfers to B, B transfers to C, and then C transfers to D, in BTC, all nodes record in this order: A→B→C→D.And the order of the tradings is determined by the absolute timestamp.
In SOL, because the nodes compute in parallel, there is more than one chain of recorded tradings, and each node has an independent relative time series:
We assume that there are two nodes, No. 1 and No. 2, and that transfers A1→B1→C1 occurred on No. 1, respectively. The transfer A2→B2→C2 occurred on chain No. 2, before the interaction between the two nodes, we can only determine the order of the respective tradings on the two chains, but the absolute time sequence is unknown, until the interaction between the two nodes occurs, such as C1 transfer to A2, we can sort out the real order as A1→B1→C1→A2→B2→C2.
This method is also known as the logical clock, there is a causal relationship between the events, the timing is correct. Of course, the chronology of events without causality may be wrong. But the respective sequences are at least accurate, and the order will be naturally sorted out when the interaction occurs. This also means that all nodes can fully exert their performance to record events. Instead of using the performance in an arithmetic competition, to compete with other nodes for the right to record the next block. If the subsequent network speed and hardware level further improve, the computing speed and throughput of SOL can be further improved, which is groundbreaking for the blockchain industry. Before SOL, more advanced hardware will only intensify the arithmetic competition among miners, and will not improve the efficiency of blockchain operation.
Risk warning: SOL architecture has not been fully validated over time, and there may be risks that have not yet been discovered. And the parallel processing of data is more likely to cause downtime, further adjustments and upgrades by the development team as well as more time validation are needed. Overall, SOL belongs to the species with a high upper limit of expected value and a low lower limit, which is risky and can be held in small proportions, but not suitable for large capital investment.